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A stem cell transplant is a treatment also known as bone marrow transplant and is a procedure for some types of cancer like leukemia, multiple myeloma, or some types of lymphoma. It is also a suggested treatment for blood diseases. Stem cell transplantation treatment allows doctors to give large doses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy to increase the chance of eliminating blood cancer in the bone marrow and then restoring normal blood cell production. The diagnosis is done by a radiologist. Stem cell transplants use blood-forming stem cells from the bone marrow and blood circulating in the body (peripheral blood) in adults. They may also use blood-forming stem cells from the umbilical cord (the cord that supplies a developing fetus with blood and nutrients). The donor is usually a brother or a sister if one is available and if he or she is a match for the patient. Otherwise, an unrelated person with stem cells that match the patient's tissue type can also be used. Sometimes a stem cell transplant may be described by the source of the stem cells. A stem cell transplant can take a few months to complete. The stem cells will be given to you through an IV catheter. This process is like receiving a blood transfusion. It takes 1 to 5 hours to receive all the stem cells. After receiving the stem cells, you begin the recovery phase. During this time, you wait for the blood cells you received to start making new blood cells. Even after your blood counts return to normal, it takes much longer for your immune system to fully recover.