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The urinary tract starts from the kidneys to the urethra where urine is passed out. Given the rich concentration of minerals and toxic wastes, it is highly prone to multiple infections. UTI, as urinary tract infections are often referred to, is one of the most common infections. In women, especially, every 1 in 2 women is affected by an UTI. Whichever part of the tract is affected, the symptoms and treatment are mostly the same. Read on to know some of the most common symptoms and treatment options for these.
- A burning sensation with urination
- Pain with urination
- Burning sensation or pain in the urethra or vagina
- Frequent urge to urinate, though not much urine is passed out
- Sense of incomplete emptying of the bladder
- Pain in the lower back on the sides of the spine
- Change in the urine characteristics color, smell, or appearance
- Fever or chills, maybe associated with shivering, nausea and vomiting
Most urinary tract infections are bacterial in nature, and these could find their way into the body through multiple ways.
- The most common is through the urethra, which could happen due to unclean toilet habits.
- Women especially are advised to wipe the urethra after each toilet visit. The bacteria from the feces can also enter the urethra due to close proximity
- Use of unclean public toilets is another reason for UTIs
Though most often UTI does not require specific testing, the following are useful in confirming the diagnosis.
- Culture and sensitivity: The urine is sent for a culture to identify the exact organism that has caused the infection. It also helps identify the right antibiotic which will help bring the infection under control.
USG of Abdomen and KUB (Kidney; Ureter and Bladder) to look for Pyelonephritis; Cystitis.
UTIs are very common infections and though there is nothing to worry, it should be cleared completely.
- Antibiotic course to get rid of the infection. Though you begin to feel better, the complete course should be completed to clear the infection.
- Following culture testing to ensure the infection is cleared
- Improve water intake to get rid of the toxins
- Fever and pain to be controlled with medications
- Healthy hygiene habits to ensure clearing of infection
Recurrent UTIs is a common problem, and the following can help prevent.
- Ensure complete emptying of the bladder
- Drink adequate water
- Safe toilet habits, including before and after sex
- Comfortable and clean underwear to prevent infection
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
A Pap Smear is a screening test done to to test for occurrence of uterine cancer. Carried out in a quick and simple way to extract a sample, the sample is collected from the cervix area of a woman during a pelvic exam. The examination of the sample takes place under a microscope thereafter to find abnormalities that can point towards cancer and pre cancer changes.
There are many reasons why women should get a pap smear screening done:
1. Women who are HIV positive should get this test done regularly so as to detect any anomalies in the cervix. This condition usually comes with higher risk of infections and cancer, which is why regular screening is required.
2. Age is also another factor and women over the age of 30 should go through an annual screening on a compulsory basis. This is also true for women who have been through pregnancy and child birth.
Preparing for a Pap Smear: To prepare for a pap smear test, you need to ensure that you are not menstruating at the time. Also, you may want to avoid sexual activity just before the test so as to get the most accurate readings. During the process, remember to stay calm and relax your body physically.
Procedure: The pap smear procedure is a quick one that might be only slightly uncomfortable. This test is usually carried out on the examination table at the gynecologist's clinic. The legs will need to be spread and placed in stirrups. The doctor will insert a speculum to hold open the vaginal opening so that the spatula can be inserted easily to take a sample from the area. This sample of the cells will be tested in a lab after due preservation.
Test Results: The test results can either be normal or abnormal. An abnormal result does not point at the presence of cancer. Rather it can simply mean that abnormal cells exist in the cervix. The doctor may ask you to go through these tests and screening more frequently so as to study the anomalies in a more detailed manner. Consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Type 1 diabetes is commonly referred to as juvenile diabetes and is mostly witnessed among young people. It can also occur in adults. In this condition, the body doesn’t produce enough insulin or completely stops producing insulin. The immune system, which saves the body from foreign microbes, attacks the cells that are responsible for producing insulin. The treatment methods include taking insulin shots, oral insulin intake, taking healthy diet, increased physical activity and controlling blood pressure and cholesterol levels.
Type 2 diabetes is a condition wherein the body refuses to use insulin in order to carry glucose to each and every cell of the body. The pancreas try to produce more insulin in order to counter the condition but soon give up due to an increased blood pressure. The treatment plan includes medication, making lifestyle changes, and controlling blood-sugar and cholesterol levels.
Gestational diabetes is observed in many pregnant women. The hormones produced during pregnancy can block insulin to be used by the body. While insulin resistance is common during pregnancy, failure of the pancreas to fill in the additional insulin in the body can result in gestational diabetes. Women who are overweight are more likely to develop this condition. Although gestational diabetes goes automatically after the baby is born, it often recurs in the form of type 2 diabetes in a later stage of life.
Risk factors for diabetes
- Weight: Being overweight is a primary risk factor for diabetes. An increased amount of adipose tissue increases the risk of insulin resistance by the body. It is therefore essential to shed as much weight as one can to avoid diabetes.
- Inactivity: Immobility increases the risk of diabetes in a person. It stacks up glucose in the body, making it difficult for the body to use glucose and convert it into energy. A daily routine which is devoid of physical activity ensures fat storage in the body, which can turn into type 2 diabetes.
- Family history: Diabetes, especially type 2, is closely linked with family history. If a person has diabetes, it is very likely that his immediate family or extended family has a history of diabetes.
- Ethnicity: African-Americans, people from the Indian subcontinent, Latinos, etc., are more likely to suffer from diabetes compared to their American or European counterparts. Lifestyle and eating habits are the major reasons for diabetes in these races.
- Age: Age has a direct correlation with diabetes. The age group of 45–65 is considered to be more diabetes-prone. Inactivity, immobility, and an increase of sugar intake are some of the primary reasons for developing diabetes in this age group. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a General Physician.
Normal Blood pressure is Systolic <140 and Diatolic <90 mm of Hg for all ages and gender except people 》60 years for whom the limits are systolic <150 and diastolic <90 mm of hg.
Anything above this is that you are hypertensive. If yoy are young <40 years and are hypertensive you should get investigated for secondary causes.
To keep your Blood Pressure within limits
1) Restict your salt intake
2) Exercise- aerobic exercise such as cycling; swimming and running for young and brisk walking for old.
3) Be regular on your medicines if you are prescribed any medicine even if your blood pressure is normal with medicines.
4) Consult your physiscian at least once every two months.
5) Get your regular reports done.
6) Drink plenty of water at leats 12 glasses/day
7) Eat healthy food.
High blood pressure, which is often a result of hypertension, is the leading risk factor for a stroke, which in turn leads to severe and long-term disability, including death. Managing your blood sugar levels is the most critical thing you can do to lessen your risk of a stroke, and you should leave no stone unturned in keeping your blood pressure at optimum levels.
What causes a stroke
A stroke, which is often referred to as a brain attack, takes place when the supply of blood to a particular region of the brain is cut off. The brain cells which are deprived of the oxygen and glucose die, and when the ailment is not caught early, a permanent damage to the brain can follow.
How is high blood pressure related to a stroke
Uncontrolled blood pressure levels can increase the risk of a stroke by about four to six times. With the passage of time, hypertension causes atherosclerosis as well as hardening of major arteries. This often results in blockages of small blood vessels present in the brain. With high blood pressure for a long period of time, the blood vessels of the brain become weak and burst. This way the risk of a stroke is directly related to the high levels of blood pressure.
What can you do to keep your blood pressure under control
There is a lot you can do to keep the chance of a stroke at bay. But the first thing you should try doing is keeping your blood pressure level normal. Some simple lifestyle changes can help you to lead a risk-free life and therefore, you should first aim at shedding off those extra pounds along your waistline.
In general, a man with a waistline measuring over 40 inches and a woman with that over 35 inches is at a higher risk of suffering from high blood pressure as well as a stroke. You should exercise regularly for at least half an hour and eat a well-regulated diet loaded with fibre, proteins, potassium and Omega-3 fatty acids. Stay away from junk food and maintain a food diary where you can jot down your honest food habits.
It is very important to lower down your high blood pressure in order to avoid risks of stroke. But if you fail to do so even after following a healthy routine, then it is crucial to consult a doctor who can help you by prescribing medications that are right for your medical condition.